Particle II – 的

  • Today we are going to learn another common particles in Chinese, (de).
  • 的 is a Structural Particle. It indicates the word or phrase preceding it functions as an attributive.
  • Attributives are words or expression used to describe nouns. Attributives can be adjectives, nouns, pronouns or verb clauses.
  • In general, the particle “的” comes in as a link marker between the attributive (adjectives, nouns, pronouns or verb clauses) and the noun modified.

    Attributive  +  的  +  Noun

1. Adjectival Attributive

  • An obvious example of an attributive is an adjective. The adjectival attributive will generally require particle “的”.

    Example:

    Attributive (Adjective) Noun Noun  Phrase Sound
    很贵 很贵的车
    hěn guì chē hěn guì de chē
    very expensive car a very expensive car
    美丽 美丽的花
    měi lì huā měi lì de huā
    beautiful flower a beautiful flower

2. Attributive to indicate “possession”

  • A noun or pronoun followed by 的 may be used as an attributive to indicate “possession”.

    Example:

    Attributive (Adjective) Noun Noun  Phrase Sound
    孩子 衣服 孩子的衣服
    hái zǐ yī fú hái zǐ de yī fú
    child clothing children’s clothing
    中国 中国的车
    zhōng guó chē zhōng guó de chē
    China car China’s car
    妈妈 妈妈的书
    mā ma shū mā ma de shū
    mother book mother’s book
    照相机 他的照相机
    zhào xiàng jī tā de zhào xiàng jī
    he camera his camera
    大家 建议 大家的建议
    dà jiā jiàn yì dà jiā de jiàn yì
    everyone idea everyone’s idea
  • NOTE: There are no possessive pronouns (e.g. his, her, their) in Chinese. [ Pronoun + 的 ] serves the same function as a possessive pronoun in English and other languages.
  • NOTE: 的 may be omitted in possessive attributive before human nouns where a close relationship is implied.

    那是我爸爸。 That is my father.

  • NOTE: Nouns may function as attributives describing other nous, and as such rally incorporate 的.

    中文老师。 A Chinese teacher

3. Attributive with a verb or verb clause

  • In English, when a attributive includes a verb, the modifier occurs after the noun as a relative clause introduced by a relative pronoun (‘who,’ ‘whom,’ ‘which’) or a complementizer (‘that’).
  • In Chinese, all attributives precede the noun.

    Example:

    Attributive (verb) Noun Noun  Phrase Sound
    喜欢 喜欢的车
    xǐ huān chē xǐ huān de chē
    like car a car that I like
    买书 买书的人
    mǎi shū rén mǎi shū de rén
    buy book person a person who buys books
    从中国来 学生 从中国来的学生
    cóng zhōng guó lái xué shēng cóng zhōng guó lái de xué shēng
    come from China student a student who has come from China
    刚出版 刚出版的书
    gāng chū bǎn shū gāng chū bǎn de shū
    newly published book a newly published book
    昨天看 那部电影 昨天看的那部电影
    zuó tiān kàn nà bù diàn yǐng zuó tiān kàn de nà bù diàn yǐng
    I watched yesterday the movie the movie I watched yesterday
Share on FacebookTweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+Pin on PinterestEmail this to someoneDigg thisShare on Tumblr

2 thoughts on “Particle II – 的”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *