Rules of Initial-Final Combination in Forming a Syllable

After you learn the Initials and Finals, now you are going to learn the rules in forming syllable (Chinese pinyin). There are 7 rules covering all initial-final combination in Chinese pinyin.

Rules:

  1. The final ‘iou’ changes into the form ‘iu’ when spelt with an initial.
    Initials b p m f d t n l j q x
    -iou miu diu niu liu jiu qiu xiu
  2. The final ‘uei’ changes into the form ‘ui’ when spelt with an initial.
    Initials d t n l g k h z c s zh ch sh r
    -uei dui tui gui kui hui zui cui sui zhui chui shui rui
  3. The final ‘uen’ changes into the form ‘un’ when spelt with an initial.
    Initials d t n l g k h z c s zh ch sh r
    -uen dun tun lun gun kun hun zun cun sun zhun chun shun run
  4. The final ‘uen’ changes into the form ‘un’ when spelt with an initial.
    Initials j q x y
    ju qu xu yu
    -üe jue que xue yue
    -üan juan quan xuan yuan
    -ün jun qun xun yun
  5. ‘i’ in the syllables ‘zi’, ‘ci’ and ‘si’ is not the common final ‘i’, but a blade-alveolar vowel. The pronunciations of the syllables ‘zi’, ‘ci’ and ‘si’ are the same as those of the initials ‘z’, ‘c’ and ‘s’.
  6. ‘i’ in the syllables ‘zhi’, ‘chi’, ‘shi’ and ‘ri’ is not the common final ‘i’, but a blade-alveolar vowel. The pronunciations of the syllables ‘zhi’, ‘chi’, ‘shi’, ‘ri’ are the same as those of the initials ‘zh’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘r’.
  7. When finals in the columns ‘i’, ‘u’ and ‘ü’ make syllables themselves without the exists of Initials , they are written as follows:
    • i = y
    • u = w
    • ü = yu
    i = y
    Finals -i -ia -iao -ie -iou -ian -in -iang -ing -iong
    Syllables yi ya yao ye you yan yin yang ying yong
    u = w
    Finals -u -ua -uo -uai -ue -uan -un -uang -ueng
    Syllables wu wa wo wai we wan wun wang weng
    ü = yu
    Finals -üe -üan -ün
    Syllables yü yue yuan yun
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6 thoughts on “Rules of Initial-Final Combination in Forming a Syllable”

  1. Hi Min Min,

    I run into your page while searching for some resources to learn Chinese by myself. Thanks a lot for your hard work to build up a free page for everyone who is interested in learning this language.
    I find a lot of useful information to start my learning now.
    By the way, it seems there are some errors with the audio of some pages and the pinyin chart. I believe that is because you are currently rework your page to upgrade it. For example, I cannot see the pinyin chart in the tool, and I can’t hear any sound in the Initials page. Hope that it will be back to work soon.

    Many thanks 🙂

    1. Hi bunbohue,
      I believe the Pinyin Chart in the tool is working fine now.
      Please try to access the chart again. If there are still any issues, please let me know. I am ready to fix them.
      Thanks again for your feedback and support.

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